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Dvara Analysis Weblog | Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise


Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise have change into one of many well-liked modes for patrons to make retail purchases in India. These merchandise are being positioned as challengers to bank cards that may make credit score extra accessible to clients at little to no value. But, the precise prices clients might incur haven’t been documented within the Indian context. Our report titled “The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise: Understanding the totally different sorts of prices Indian clients can incur in utilizing BNPL merchandise” makes an attempt to fill this hole.

Our findings on this report put the highlight on key elements of the BNPL market, primarily –

    i. Financial prices that clients might incur after they use BNPL merchandise.

    ii. Conduct-related issues that BNPL clients might face and the following non-monetary prices that they could incur.

These findings are supposed to assist stakeholders achieve extra perception into the BNPL market and establish buyer safety gaps that have to be addressed.  

Analysis Methodology

The methodology we comply with on this research presents a helpful strategy to monitor and establish buyer safety issues in nascent product markets. We examined the BNPL market primarily by means of two totally different approaches–

  1. Analysing phrases and situations (T&Cs) of ten outstanding Indian BNPL suppliers

    . We used the insights from this evaluation to (a) develop a financial prices matrix presenting the totally different prices clients might incur and (b) establish buyer safety gaps that may create vital dangers for patrons.

  2. Utilizing BNPL merchandise personally.

    We registered and made a purchase order with a BNPL product from 5 of the ten suppliers. This helped us perceive the shopper expertise with every product and establish potential divergence with the fees and provisions talked about within the T&Cs. These experiences helped us refine our findings in (1).

Findings and takeaways for buyer safety

Our findings recommend that clients utilizing BNPL incur financial prices akin to prices of utilizing bank cards and are vulnerable to opposed dangers rising from gaps in buyer safety. A few of our key findings embrace–

    a. The prices clients incur may be divided into pre-default and post-default prices.

    Pre-default prices embrace curiosity prices, processing charges, autopay charges, carry ahead curiosity, becoming a member of charges and card-related costs. The APR on BNPL merchandise various between 0 to 36%, processing charges various between 0 to fifteen% of the sanctioned quantity, and different costs various between INR 0 to INR 500. Publish-default prices contains late charges various with the excellent quantity and was often between INR 0 to INR 2000. Nonetheless, for some suppliers, like Unicard, the charges went as excessive as INR 3000 for dues between INR 2 lakhs to INR 10 lakhs. It’s unclear if the APR charged by BNPL suppliers is inclusive of all costs. If not inclusive, the financial prices of BNPL merchandise could also be nearer to that of bank cards. This must be validated with a bigger research of prices incurred by clients over time

    b. BNPL suppliers’ T&Cs are misaligned with key buyer safety laws, contravening key conduct obligations

  • Some suppliers’ T&Cs and Key Details Statements (KFS) omitted key particulars in regards to the BNPL product like the fees clients can incur.

  • Financiers retained the proper to reject purposes unilaterally with out giving causes for rejection.

  • Some suppliers explicitly maintain clients chargeable for assessing suitability of the credit score being provided. Different suppliers are silent about who’s accountable to evaluate suitability. ​

  • Some suppliers’ T&Cs had doubtlessly illegal provisions – like a waiver of buyer safeguards beneath usury legal guidelines and different legal guidelines regarding charging of curiosity. ​

  • Credit score reporting practices are hardly ever disclosed to clients. Suppliers additionally don’t disclose how utilizing BNPL merchandise can have an effect on clients’ credit score scores. 

  • Suppliers’ T&Cs have broad and ambiguous clauses relating to non-public information use, giving suppliers leeway for utilizing private information for broad functions. 

  • Some suppliers talked about the opportunity of charging an undisclosed, non-refundable processing charges for buyer purposes.

c. The onboarding course of for all suppliers was easy and totally digital however omitted essential details about the product

(like its prices). This info was not prominently displayed initially of the onboarding course of. These particulars had been solely accessible on the suppliers’ web sites.

d. BNPL suppliers might have to align with the Cost and Settlement Methods Act, 2007 (PSSA).

Presently, some BNPL suppliers appear to be settling funds instantly with retailers with out due authorisation from the RBI.

e. BNPL suppliers may have to align with the RBI Grasp Path on issuing bank cards, 2022.

It seems that BNPL merchandise might fall inside the scope of the definition of a bank card beneath the RBI’s Grasp Path on issuing bank cards launched in April 2022. If that’s the case, BNPL suppliers might must make vital adjustments to their practices and enterprise fashions.

Our findings recommend that the financial and non-monetary prices related to utilization of BNPL merchandise are substantial and are usually not at all times identified to the shopper earlier than subscribing to the product. The opacity across the prices mixed with some doubtlessly illegal clauses, reveal critical buyer safety dangers that BNPL debtors are uncovered to. These findings refute the narrative of BNPL merchandise as low- to no-cost credit score alternate options to bank cards.

Additional, The BNPL promise of credit score inclusion seems to be weakened by a set of things. The primary set of things could make BNPL merchandise much less reasonably priced for patrons. These components embrace (a) probably larger delinquency charges amongst BNPL clients which may in flip improve credit score prices for suppliers and curiosity prices for future clients, and (b) a rise in prices to clients as a result of adjustments in BNPL supplier enterprise fashions and retailers’ pricing preparations. One other set of things could make BNPL merchandise and credit score much less accessible. These embrace (a) unexplained rejection of consumers’ BNPL purposes, and (b) inconsistent reporting of consumers’ repayments to credit score bureaus.  

The methodological strategy adopted on this research can present a helpful template for market monitoring of nascent however quickly rising monetary merchandise. As an illustration, our findings from the research recommend that clients are at a threat of (a) unknowingly incurring debt, (b) borrowing credit score that’s unsuitable for them, and (c) being topic to attainable harms from weaker buyer safety safeguards. These findings align with these from regulatory investigations into the BNPL market in markets with extra mature BNPL merchandise. Regulators and suppliers should be aware of these penalties to plan measures to enhance buyer safety within the BNPL market. 

The complete report is accessible right here.

Cite this weblog:


Srinivas, M., & Prasad, S. (2022). Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise. Retrieved from Dvara Analysis.


Srinivas, Madhu and Srikara Prasad. “Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise.” 2022. Dvara Analysis.


Srinivas, Madhu, and Srikara Prasad. 2022. “Report: The prices of utilizing Purchase Now, Pay Later (BNPL) merchandise.” Dvara Analysis.



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